A Prediction on The ECJ Legal Case on the FIFA Football Agent Regulations


As we write this blog there are several ongoing court cases targeting the new FIFA Football Agent Regulations (FFAR) that are yet to be concluded, and those that have passed judgement so far have not always been favourable to agents whilst others have undermined the outcome FIFA desire. The most significant ongoing court case is being heard in the European Court of Justice (the ECJ).

The judgement and proceedings with the ECJ are held in this particularly high regard as the court has collateral consequences upon other countries, associations and jurisdictions. From our previous blogs on the topic of the legal battle against the FFAR we know that in many countries, decisions have been made to grant injunctions, delays, preliminary judgements, and temporary alterations to the regulations whilst waiting for the ECJ conclusion. Put simply, the decision and rulings that are eventually made by the ECJ will then be factored into the finality of the decisions and FFAR implementation made in individual countries.  

In this blog we will first explain what we know about the ECJ case so far and where it currently stands in terms of making a judgement. Then we will aim to make estimated predictions as to what the outcome might be by delving into the legal basis of the case agents are presenting against the FFAR and the compatibility, coherence and legality of the regulations with international laws, particularly focusing on the principles outlined in the well-known Meca Medina case. 

The European Court of Justice

Before we assess the legal case against the FFAR being heard in the most internationally-impacting court and attempt to predict an outcome, it’s important to first understand who is actually responsible for making this key decision that will be binding and enforceable upon individual associations. 

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is a pivotal institution within the European Union (EU) that plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of EU law. Established in 1952, the ECJ is headquartered in Luxembourg and serves as the EU’s supreme court. Its primary function is to ensure the consistent interpretation and application of EU law across all member states and by all Individuals, businesses, and organisations.

At the heart of the ECJ’s mandate is the task of interpreting EU law. When national courts within EU member states encounter questions regarding the interpretation or application of EU law in specific cases, they have the authority to seek clarification from the ECJ. These queries result in preliminary rulings issued by the ECJ, which are binding on the national courts. This process ensures that EU law is uniformly applied throughout the EU, irrespective of the specific legalities of member states.

Another vital role of the ECJ is to enforce compliance with EU law. If a member state fails to correctly implement EU law or acts in a manner inconsistent with EU principles, the ECJ has the authority to issue judgments and impose penalties to ensure compliance. This mechanism is essential for maintaining the EU’s legal framework’s cohesion and effectiveness and allows the court to hold EU institutions and states accountable. We will look at a sport-specific example case below which demonstrates how the ECJ can exercise their powers in the context of sport.

Individuals, businesses, and organisations (such as a representative body of Football Agents and FIFA) can bring cases against EU institutions before the General Court, a component of the ECJ. This process enhances transparency and oversight over the actions of EU bodies, contributing to the EU’s democratic principles and checks and balances.

Moreover, the ECJ has a critical role in safeguarding fundamental rights enshrined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. It ensures that EU legislation respects these rights, contributing to the protection of individual freedoms, competition and liberties within the EU. These are particularly relevant and part of the debate we will go on to discuss with regard to the FFAR.

Importantly, the European Court of Justice acts as a crucial arbiter in cases involving EU law and regulations, ensuring that the legal framework within the European Union remains harmonious and consistent, even in complex and contentious matters such as those involving international sports regulations like the FIFA Football Agent Regulations.

The Applicability of EU Law to the FIFA Football Agent Regulations

The new regulations imposed by FIFA can be analysed from the perspective of EU competition law to ensure they conform to the principles of the internal market. If these regulations have the effect of restricting the economic activity of agents, for instance, by capping commissions or limiting the ability of agents to operate freely across the EU, agents may argue that such limitations are anti-competitive as we will analyse below.

Agents who believe that FIFA’s regulations are impeding their ability to conduct business are challenging these rules before the European Court of Justice (ECJ). They are contending that the regulations contravene Article 101 TFEU if the rules are deemed to be part of an agreement between undertakings or an association of undertakings that restricts competition within the EU. If FIFA is found to hold a dominant position in the market for the services of sports agents, then agents could also argue that the imposition of such regulations amounts to an abuse of that position, in violation of Article 102 TFEU.

The ECJ would then assess these regulations to determine whether they are proportionate and necessary for achieving the legitimate objectives pursued by FIFA, which could include the integrity of sports and protection of athletes, or whether they are simply commercial restrictions that unduly limit competition. The general applicability of these regulations across all member states would also be a factor in the assessment, as EU law seeks to ensure the free movement of services and the freedom of establishment.

If the ECJ finds that the regulations do indeed violate EU competition law, FIFA would be required to amend them to comply with EU principles. It’s a complex balance between the autonomy of sports organisations to regulate their affairs and the broader economic freedoms protected by EU law.

The Legal Case Basis 

So what are the fundamental reasons and legal questions behind the ongoing legal dispute concerning the new FIFA Football Agent Regulations

As we have touched upon above, the core of these proceedings centres on agents‘ firm belief that certain aspects of the new regulations exhibit inconsistency and conflict with broader realms of European and national laws. Football Agents and their legal advocates contend that FIFA has run afoul of European Competition Law, effectively promoting an anti-competitive environment within the industry. As a result, agents argue that these regulations should be invalidated and rendered unenforceable and this is what the ECJ will decide whether or not to agree with. 

It is key to note that FIFA is not exempt from adherence to local and international laws thanks in large part to a case we will go on to discuss. Hence, it is imperative that the new agent regulations align with and comply with these legal frameworks. In the legal action against FIFA in the ECJ, it becomes crucial for FIFA to demonstrate this alignment; otherwise, there is a risk that the FFAR may be dismissed and declared unenforceable, forcing amendments and adjustments to be made to bring it into coherence with international laws.

Without delving too far into the depths of case law that will be scrutinised and applied to the ECJ it is important to mention the case of Meca Medina and Majcen v Commission [2006] which was also decided upon by the ECJ and concerned violations of European Competition Law. The judgement of the case outlined several principles that we can now use to make an informed prediction as to how the dispute between FIFA and football agents may be resolved. These key principles are listed below and we go on to outline the fundamental legal grounds for the dispute against FIFA that agents are attempting to demonstrate to the ECJ are contradictory and therefore illegal under the microscope of international law: 

  1. Non-discrimination: The ECJ in the Meca Medina case emphasised that EU competition law prohibits any discrimination between different categories of economic operators or between different trading partners. This means that all entities, including sports organisations and governing bodies such as FIFA, must treat all economic ‘operators’, namely football agents in our concerned case case, fairly and without discrimination. Because of this ruling, FIFA must always be in line with wider European law and there is no exemption in sport; we are also seeing this in the case around the European Super League proposal at the moment as well.

In the dispute against the FFAR, perhaps the most significant clash with the non-discrimination principle arises from the commission cap. This could potentially constitute an unlawful restraint on trade and curtail the earning prospects of agents but is not a measure seen elsewhere in the sport. As there are no other examples of capping or restricting income for other football industry professionals, many of whom such as players and sporting directors can earn large wages, can help agents demonstrate that the caps against them contradict the principle of non-discrimination given in the Meca Medina case.

2. Proportionality: The ECJ emphasised that any measures taken by sports organisations or regulatory bodies must be proportionate to the legitimate objectives pursued. This means that any restrictions or regulations imposed by FIFA on football agents must be reasonable and not go beyond what is necessary to achieve legitimate goals, such as maintaining the integrity of the sport. As we will discuss later underneath the Meca Medina principle of balancing competing interests, proportionality will be considered in the context as to whether the measures taken by FIFA through the FFAR are proportional to the legitimate objective of regulating football agents in an appropriate manner.

3. Transparency and Due Process: The ECJ highlighted the importance of transparency and due process in the enforcement of competition law. This means that any actions or decisions taken by FIFA in its dealings with football agents should be transparent, and agents should have the opportunity to present their case and be heard in a fair manner.

With regards to this legal principle, it is key to understand that FIFA serves as the global governing body responsible for establishing, revising, and abolishing rules and regulations in the sport, which subsequently find implementation at the national level. The legal case against FIFA seeks to demonstrate that the predominant entity, FIFA itself, has misused its position of authority and committed an ‘abuse of dominance’ that is in breach of the transparency and due process principle outlined in the Meca Medina case. 

To assert that these regulations constitute an ‚abuse‘ of their standing within the football industry, the cases aim to argue that the newly instituted agent regulations were developed without due consideration for affected stakeholders, causing harm to market competition and the overall well-being of the industry. Additionally, the agents‘ legal argument endeavours to establish that any purported efforts by FIFA to prevent the abuse of dominance, such as the ostensibly conducted „consultation“ process involving agents, proved to be ineffectual and simply a publicity stunt.

4. Balancing Competing Interests: The ECJ recognized that sports organisations such as FIFA may have legitimate interests in regulating the sport, but these interests must be balanced against the rights and interests of economic operators, including football agents. This requires a careful examination of the specific circumstances of each case.

In the case we are considering, FIFA has introduced the new agent regulations with the intention of bringing about an overall enhancement to both the agent industry and the sport of football in general. This decision comes in response to widespread criticism regarding the lack of transparency within the agency sector and the substantial outflow of funds from the game as clubs pay substantial commission fees. 

The ECJ case against FIFA aims to demonstrate convincingly that the current form of these new regulations lacks a fair balance of competing interests, and offers no realistic prospect of achieving FIFA’s stated objectives. For instance, a foreseeable outcome of the new regulations is that agents and clubs may explore alternative methods of ethically compensating agents, and if not, it is the players who may bear the burden rather than the clubs. Consequently, if the court determines that the regulations are unlikely to fulfil their intended purpose of fostering a more transparent and ethical industry, it is conceivable that the FIFA Regulations may not be upheld.

In summary, when applying these Meca Medina principles to the case involving FIFA and football agents, the ECJ and relevant EU courts are likely to consider whether FIFA’s actions and regulations are in compliance with EU competition law. They would assess whether FIFA’s rules and practices are non-discriminatory, proportionate, transparent, and respect due process. The court would also weigh FIFA’s legitimate objectives, such as the integrity of football, against the rights and interests of football agents to ensure a fair and balanced outcome. Ultimately, the specific details and context of the case will determine the extent of the application of these principles.

It is also worth mentioning one other issue under scrutiny in the ECJ regarding the new regulations and the requirement for agents to publicly disclose their earnings through the FIFA Clearing House. These concerns revolve not only around agents‘ right to privacy but also the potential risks this disclosure could pose to agents, particularly in certain regions of the world. Agents are hopeful that the ECJ will view breaches of privacy and the potential impact on agents‘ safety as additional legitimate arguments against this aspect of the new regulations.

In essence, agents believe that certain elements of the new FIFA agent regulations, particularly the commission cap, are unjust. If the ECJ ultimately validates these regulations, agents who do not fall into the highest income bracket may find it challenging to sustain their businesses, potentially leading to significant repercussions for players in lower leagues and the broader football landscape. Nonetheless, demonstrating ‚unfairness‘ alone may not be sufficient; the case presented to the ECJ by agents must rely on evidence and well-constructed arguments highlighting how the regulations contravene national and international laws.

What is the Outcome Going to be?

Predicting the exact conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in the ongoing legal dispute over the FIFA Football Agent Regulations (FFAR) is challenging, as it hinges on complex legal arguments and interpretations. However, many believe it is likely that the ECJ will acknowledge some shortcomings in the current FFAR when applying the principles of the Meca Medina case, and the court may call for changes and amendments. The extent of these changes remains uncertain and will depend on the specific legal violations identified by the court. 

The ECJ may emphasise the importance of FIFA aligning its regulations with European and national laws, particularly with regard to competition law and to ensure they are non-discriminatory, proportionate, transparent, and respect due process. The commission cap, which has drawn significant scrutiny, may therefore undergo modifications to ensure that it does not hinder healthy competition within the agent industry while still addressing concerns related to exorbitant commissions.

Furthermore, the court could recommend improvements in FIFA’s consultation processes with stakeholders and demand more transparency in the development of regulations, resulting in a more balanced approach that takes into account the interests of all parties involved, including agents, clubs, and players.

Regarding the requirement for agents to publicly disclose their earnings, the ECJ may prioritise agents‘ right to privacy while considering alternative methods to enhance transparency in the industry without compromising safety.


In summary, the key premise is that the ECJ’s ruling will serve as a definitive interpretation of how EU law aligns with the FIFA regulations, providing legal clarity not only for the parties involved in the case but also for all EU member states. If the ECJ does indeed find that the FIFA regulations violated EU law, it will likely result in adjustments or exemptions being made to the regulations to bring them in line with EU legal standards and in adherence to the principles arising from the Meca Medina case. The extent of these changes will depend on the specific legal arguments put forth during the proceedings and the court’s determination of the regulations‘ shortcomings. Conversely, if the ECJ determines that the regulations are consistent with EU law, it will uphold and permit their implementation within the EU.



by Dr. Erkut Sogut & Jamie Khan

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